On the job training-



Training is the one of the most important ways that performance can be improved. Training refers the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities to improve performance in one’s job. Training usually consists of a short -term focus on acquiring skills to perform one’s job. Development refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills and ability requires performing future job. Training and development is part of a larger human resources system that plays a role in the performance management. Training is important to new and present employees. Training is in short , an attempt to improve current or future performance .The two different training programs that is giving to the employees are;

On- the job training

Off- the job training


Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees learning of job related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills or behaviors that are  critical for successful job performance.Training is becoming more performance focused. That is training is used to improve employee performance, which leads to improved business result. several Training is seen as one of the several possible solutions to improve performance.

                                Among different training programs on- the job training have its own importance and advantage because On the job training is important because it allows those with no experience to work and learn at the same time. It provides opportunity for

those with little or no education as well. On the job training is when an employer hires one employee and gives  a certain time to learn the job. This is usually about a 90 day period in which the employer can dismiss employee if his/her work is not up to par. When people think of conducting on-the-job training, they tend to think of new employees who have entered a job, have been shown a desk (or other work environment), and will be learning via “trial by fire.” Although this method is sometimes effective, the benefits of on-the-job-training can be amplified with a little more preparation and coaching.

On-the-job training is something that employers most likely do on a daily basis, and is an effective way for new or growing employees to learn new skills and position demands in a cost-efficient manner. But even on-the-job training can be maximized if some prior planning is put into it. The simple act of putting a new employee with a veteran employee is not an effective method of learning, but simple considerations such as prior planning and seasoned trainers can develop the simplest training into a cost efficient learning tool that may require less time, and provide a more in-depth learning experience. On-the-job training refers to an arrangement whereby a new employee of a business, or a current employee needing to be trained for a new position within the business, is trained by the business for a certain period of time. The business is reimbursed for some of the training wage by Job Growers Incorporated.

From an employer perspective, the purpose of the on-the-job training is to train workers to be skilled and productive and to receive reimbursement for the extraordinary costs of that training. A quality on-the-job training and a quality outcome occurs when the employer understands that the OJT is intended to provide employees with solid work skills and habits and a chance for career advancement.

From the trainee’s perspective, the on-the-job training is a way to gain entry to employment for which she/he needs additional training. It is also an opportunity to acquire the knowledge, skills and abilities that are essential to the full and adequate performance of the job. A quality on-the-job training and a quality outcome occurs when the training matches the trainee’s occupational interests and abilities, required working conditions and the financial needs of the trainee. A quality training and outcome also occurs when the training provides the trainee with needed skills, and results in continued employment after the training in a job that offers adequate compensation, stability and possibility for advancement.


A training objective is a statement of the trainees is expected to able to do after a training program.  Training objectives answer the question, “what the trainees be able to do at the end of a training program?”. The emphasis of training usually learning, on the –job behavior, and  job performance. Learning involves the process of acquiring new knowledge, skills and attitudes, while performance involves the use of these new skills , knowledge , and attitudes on the job. Training objectives usually refer to the acquisition of knowledge and or skills as well as behavior on the job.

 Formal OJT programs are quite different from informal OJT. These programs are carried out by identifying the employees who are having superior technical knowledge and can effectively use one-to-one interaction technique

.On-the-job training focuses on the acquisition of skills within the work environment generally under normal working conditions. Through on-the-job training, workers acquire both general skills that they can transfer from one job to another and specific skills that are unique to a particular job. On-the-job training, typically includes verbal and written instruction, demonstration and observation, and hands-on practice and imitation. In addition, the on-the-job training process involves one employee—usually a supervisor or an experienced employee passing knowledge and skills on to a novice employees.

. On-the-job training is still the predominant form of job training in the United States, particularly for non-managerial employees. Numerous studies indicate that it is the most effective form of job training. The largest share of on-the-job training is provided by the private sector, though the most widely studied training programs are those sponsored by federal legislation.

On-the-job training programs range from formal training with company supervisors to learning by watching. In this sense, the most formal types of on-the-job training are distinct from classroom training largely in that they take place within the firm. In the face of increased international competition and the more widespread use of computers in production processes, the implementation of more formal and sophisticated kinds of on-the-job training has become a critical issue for firms in the United States.

Some key points on on-the job training

  1. 1.     At the start of training, or during the training, no specific goals or objectives are developed
  2. Training usually have no formal qualification or training experience for training
  3. Training is not carefully planned or prepared
  4. The trainers are selected on the basis of technical expertise or area knowledge

The procedure of formal on the job training program is;

1)          The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled

     trainer (employee).

  1. The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before, during and after trainer has                     explained about performing the tasks.
  2. When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the work place.
  3. The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback.

Types of on –the job training

Two different types of on-the-job training are frequently distinguished in the professional literature: structured (planned) and unstructured (unplanned). Unstructured is the most common kind and refers to loose on-the-job training programs that largely involve a novice employee working with an experienced employee, who serves as a guide or mentor in an observe-and-imitate training process. The new workers largely learn by trial and error with feedback and suggestions from experienced workers or supervisors. Unstructured training is designed based on work requirements (e.g. manufacturing products), not on imparting job skilled needed by new workers (e.g. the specific skills needed to manufacture products). Consequently, unstructured on-the-job training often fails to impart needed skills fully or consistently, because experienced employees sometimes are unable to articulate clearly the proper methods for performing a job and they sometimes use different training methods each time train new workers.

In contrast, structured on-the-job training involves a program designed to teach new workers what they must know and do in order to complete their tasks successfully. On-the-job training represents a significant investment considering that roughly 30 percent of a new worker’s time is spent in on-the-job training during the first 90 days of employment, that productivity of experienced workers assigned to train new workers may decrease during the training period, and that new workers may make expensive mistakes, according to William J. Rothwell and H.C. Kazan as in improving on -the job trainingHence, it behooves companies tO design and implement systematic training programs.

Example for on the job training

One of the first structured on-the-job training programs was launched during World War I in the shipbuilding industry by Charles “Skipper” R. Allen, who based the program on the ideas of the psychologist Johann Friedrich Herbart. Allen sought to make training more efficient by having trainees undergo four steps:

  1. Preparation: show workers what they are required to do.
  2. Presentation: tell workers what they are required to do and why they are required to do it.
  3. Application: let workers perform the required tasks.
  4. Inspection: provide feedback, informing workers of what they have done right and what they have done wrong.

On-the-job training received renewed interest during World War 11 when Allen’s program was expanded to include seven steps:

  1. Demonstrate how to complete a task.
  2. Review important points.
  3. Demonstrate task again.
  4. Let workers perform easier parts of the task.
  5. Help workers perform the entire task.
  6. Allow workers to perform the entire task, while being monitored.
  7. Allow workers to perform the task on their own.

  Problems of on –the job training

On the job- training is the most common approach to training, it has been described as the most misused. This is due to a number of problems that limit its effectiveness. One of the biggest problems is that on the job training is often not well planned or structured. A related problem is that most people assigned the task of training others on the job have not been received training on how to be a trainer. As a result, managers and employees do not have the knowledge and skills required to be effective trainers and are not familiar with important learning principles such as practice, feedback, and reinforcement.

                                                 Other problems occur when those doing the training are worried that newly trained employees will one day take over their jobs. Further, some trainers might abuse their position by making the trainee do all the dirty work and the trainee might not learn important skills. In addition OJT can be time consuming and some employees feel penalized when they can’t earn as much money or meet their goals because of the time they have had to spend training others. It is for all these reasons that OJT is not always effective and has been referred to as the most used and misused training method.

                               On-The-Job Training Chart



What To Do

1. Prepare the learner.

¨   To relieve tension.

¨   To establish training base.

¨   To stimulate interest.

¨   To give the trainee confidence in

     performing the task.

¨   Put the trainee at ease.

¨   Find out what the trainee already knows about the


¨   Relate task to overall objective.

¨   Link task to the trainee’s experience.

¨   Make sure the trainee is comfortable to see you

     Perform the task clearly.

2. Present the task.

¨   To make sure the trainee understands

     what to do and why.

¨   To ensure retention.

¨   To avoid giving the trainee more than

     he or she can absorb.

¨   Tell, show and question carefully and patiently.

¨   Emphasize key points.

¨   Instruct clearly and completely one step at a time.

¨   Keep your words to a minimum. Stress action words.

3. Try out trainee’s      


¨   To be sure the trainee has learned the

     correct method.

¨   To prevent poor habit development.

¨   To be sure the trainee knows how the

     task is to be performed and why.

¨   To test the trainee’s knowledge.

¨   To avoid putting the trainee on the job


¨   Observe the trainee perform the task without your

     instruction. If the trainee commits a substantial error,            

     repeat Step 2.

¨   Upon correct completion of the task, have the trainee

    repeat the task. This time, the trainee should explain the task as he or she performs it.

4. Follow-up

¨   To show your confidence in the trainee.

¨   To give the trainee self-confidence.

¨   To be sure the trainee has been trained


¨   To foster a feeling of self-sufficiency in


¨   Make favorable comments about trainee’s current

     work and progress to date.

¨   Let the trainee work independently.

¨   Frequently monitor trainee’s work.

¨   Gradually reduce trainee monitoring.


                       In this modern technological world training is very vital in every organization because training helps to update each and every employee and also helps to improve their technical and theoretical knowledge. Among different types of training programs on -the job training program have its own importance that training program is entirely differ from other training program. OJT will not affect the productivity of the company it gives experience and training simultaneously for an employee. Without this training program no company can improve its productivity and performance.so its better to provide on-the job training  for new comers.